Portuguese Colonies. (Timor - Netherlands East Indies). 1895. Registered Timor postal stationery double reply card bearing Timor SG 31, 30 on 300r orange tied by Timor date stamp with framed hand-struck 'R/ Timor' on face addressed to the Netherlands East Indies with Makasser squared circle '12th Jan 1895' and Soerabaja '18/1' with Sudhoardje arrival '18th Jan' and forwarded to Weltevreden with squared circle receiver '26th Mars 1895' on face. Superb. Exhibition item.
Very scarce usage of a double reply card sent registered from Timor to the Netherlands East Indies.
Portugal. (Great Britain). 1814. Pre-stamp folded letter written from Lisbon addressed to Edinburgh via the British Packet Agency in Lisbon with hand-struck 'Lisbon' on face and rated '5/11' in m/s on reverse and charged '2/10' on face in black ink, routed via London with circular 'Foreign/ Ju 14' and bold hand-struck Scottish 'Add/ 1/2' on face and framed 'July/ 17/ 1814' arrival in red. Nice item.
Portugal. (Switzerland). Registered mourning envelope written from the 'Swiss Consul in Porto' with circular 'Consulat Suisse a Porto' in violet on face addressed to Switzerland bearing 'Republica' Yvert 171, 15r pale lilac, Yvert 172, 20r rose and 'Assistencia' Yvert 204, 10r grey-green, Yvert 207, 15c black, Yvert 208, 1c blue/green and Yvert 211, 2 1/2c violet (2) tied by Carlos Alberto double ring with framed hand-struck 'R/ Portugal' and 'Recommande/ Registado' hand-stamp in carmine on face with 'Consult de la Confederation Suisse/ Porto' label on reverse tied by Geneve receiver. Very attractive cover.
Portuguese Colonies. (India). 1916. Registered envelope written on the 's.s. "Vorwaots" in Marmagoa, Goa addressed to Switzerland bearing Portuguese India SG 449, 1t violet (strip of four) tied by Marmagoa date stamp with pink registration label, routed via Bombay with large circular 'Passed By Censor/ 14/ Bombay' on face and 'Opened by Censor' label tied by Zurich reverse on reverse '3rd June 16.' Very fine item.
Portuguese Colonies. (Mozambique). 1859. Stamp-less folded letter written 'Auginfabre & Fils, Marseille' dated '1st Mars 1859' addressed to 'Monsieur Ant. Michel a Mozambique', endorsed 'via Algoa Bay' and sent on the French paquebot "Chapeur" . A very fine and scarce early item into Portuguese Mozambique.
Netherlands East Indies. (Forwarding Agents). 1843. Stamp-less folded letter written from Batavia dated 'April 10 1843' addressed to Rotterdam endorsed 'per Batavia', charged '60c' with oval 'Zee Brief/ Den Helder' dated '22nd Sept', forwarded from Rotterdam '26/9' with framed 'Received & Forwarded/ By Your Most Obedient Servants/ A. Campbell & Co/ Rotterdam 26th Sept 1843' in black on reverse with hand-struck 'Ship Letter' applied in London '28th Sept' and rated '1/4' in m/s.
Lovely item of forwarded mail. Exhibition item.
India. (Singapore - Netherlands Indies). 1844. Stamp-less folded letter written from Bombay dated '25th Nov 44' addressed to Batavia, Netherlands Indies endorsed 'per ship "Sea Horse" with m/s 'per "Cleopatra" with oval 'Behn Meyer & Co/ Singapore' in black on reverse and oval 'Zeebrief/ Ongerfranke' in blue/ green on face and charged '60' ct on face in red crayon on arrival in Batavia.
Superb item written from Bombay and forwarded from Singapore to Batavia.
Ceylon. (Trans - Pacific Mail). 1941. Air Mail envelope addressed to the United States bearing Ceylon SG 396, 2r black and carmine (pair) tied by Wellawatta date stamp '7th July 41', endorsed 'via Pacific/ Singapore'/ U.S.A.' with '33/ Opened by Censor' label. Lovely item of Trans-Pacific mail paying the four rupee rate.
India. (Jammu Kashmir Official Mail). 1917. Envelope headed 'Kashmir State Service' written from 'H.H. Confidential Office/ Jammu' and signed, addressed to 'Sir Francis Younghusband, Buckingham Gate, London' bearing India 'Service' SG 076, 1/2a green (2) tied by Jammu double ring '19th Feb 17' with London receiver and forwarded to Younghusband at 'The Mill Cottage, Wimbledon Common, Surrey.
Tibet. (India used in Nepal - Tibet). 1922. Indian KGV postal stationery envelope 'half anna' green upgraded with India SG 155, 1/2a green tied by Nepal double ring on reverse with oval 'Katmandu' hand-stamp under Gyantse arrival addressed to Tibet with Gyantse arrival on reverse.
The oval Katmandu mark is found on mail that was dispatched to and from the British India Post Office in Katmandu from 1920 - 1937.
H. Garrat-Adams was of the opinion that this may have been a censor mark applied by the Nepalese authorities.
India. (Sikkim - Denmark). 1896. Indian postal stationery envelope 'two annas six pies' orange cancelled by Gantok/ Sikkim date stamp 'Mr 9 96' addressed to Denmark, routed via Calcutta with Sea Post Office 'Mr 14 96' on reverse.
Very fine cover from Sikkim addressed to Denmark.
Tibet. (Younghusband Expedition to Tibet). 1904. Crested envelope from the '1st Battalion, Borderers Regiment, South Wales' based at 'Meean Meer' addressed to Capt. W.E.B. Smith/ S.W. Borderers/ Commd. No 7 Carrier Corps/ Thibet Field Service, Thibet' bearing India SG 113, 1/2a yellow-green (pair) tied by Meean-Meer date stamp '9th Oct 04' with 'Base Office' dated '12th Oct' on reverse and 'Field P.O. No 87' dated '13th Oct 04' on reverse.
Only one other example of Field Post Office 87 is known on an Indian postal stationery envelope in the "Armand E. Singer" collection which was sold intact by his estate.
'D.S. Virk' notes Field Post Office 87 at Gantok from May to 14th November 1904.
Little mail is known into the Expedition with most correspondence from Younghusband, Bailey or Sven Hedin the famous explorer of Tibet.
George Alevizos and Armand Singer remark the early Field Post Office cancels are rarely clear.
Germany. (Bermuda - Boer War). 1901. German postal stationery 'Reply Card' (with unused reply half attached) cancelled by Oldenburg date stamp '18th Nov 01' addressed to 'Willy Weichardt, Prisoner of War/ Burts Island, Bermuda' with circular 'Prisoner of War/ Passed by Censor/ Bermuda' in blue on face and Hamilton/Bermuda 'Dec 7th' on reverse and endorsed 'Not Darrell' in m/s pencil.
Only 1100 Boer Prisoners were held on Darrell Island in the Great Sound of Bermuda.
Isle of Man. (Bermuda - Boer War). 1902. Mourning 'FRONT OF COVER' addressed to 'Julius Siewssen, Prisoner of War, Tuckers Island, Bermuda' bearing Great Britain SG 216, 1/2d blue-green (pair) tied by Peel squared circle 'Feb 12 02' with circular 'Prisoner of War/ Passed by Censor/ Bermuda' in blue on face and endorsed 'To Burts' in m/s indicating the Prisoner had been transferred from Tuckers Island to Burts Island.
Only 607 Boer Prisoners were held on Burts Island in the Great Sound of Bermuda.
Malaya. (Civilian Internees in Malaya). 1943. Stamp-less envelope headed 'Prisoner of War Post/ Service Des Prisonniers de Guerre' addressed to 'Mr A. Cross, British Civilian Internee, Changi Camp, Singapore' cancelled by Muthill/ Perthshire double ring '20th May 43' with 'Opened by Examiner/ 4836' label applied and framed 'Ken'etsuzumi' (censored) in violet with circular seal (unidentified) with m/s '118' indicating the hut number for Cross and on reverse 'Recd. Sime Road Camp 5th June 1944' in pencil.
Very nice item of civilian mail into Sime Road Camp. Illustrated in David Tett "Singapore and Malaya, The Changi Connection.'
Malaya. (Civilian Internees in Malaya). 1943. Stamp-less envelope headed 'Prisoner of War Post/ Service Des Prisonniers de Guerre' addressed to 'Mr Frank A. McCaffery, British Civilian Internee, Changi Camp, Singapore' cancelled by Wrantage/ Taunton double ring '31st May 43' with 'Opened by Examiner 3503' label applied and circular 'Ken'etsuzumi' (censored) in violet with m/s '116' in blue crayon indicating the hut number for Cross and on reverse 'Recd. 4.6.1944' in pencil
Malaya. (Civilian Internees in Malaya). 1943. Enquiry card from the Red Cross in Geneva with circular 'Comite International de la Croix Rouge/ Geneve' in carmine dated '14th Aout 1943' sent via the Catholic Mission in Fribourg (Suisse) dated '17th Aout 43' addressed to the 'Apostolic Delegation in London with hand-stamp received '25 Aout 1943' on reverse.
The enquiry card advises that Wilfred Young, Staff of Borneo Co, Singapore is probably interned at Changi.
India. (India used in Sikkim - Tibet). 1908. India postal stationery card 1/4a brown cancelled by Darjeeling date stamp '31st Mar 1908' addressed to the 'Post Office Rangpo, Sikkim' with Rangpo arrival '1st April', (struck twice) '2nd April' and forwarded to My Song, Gangtok '3rd April' and carried to Ghum with receiver '3rd and '4th April' (struck twice) on face. Very rare item.
The Ghum and Rangpo are very rare cancels from Sikkim.
India. (India - Afghanistan). 1928. Native envelope addressed to Peshawar bearing Afghanistan Yvert 235, 15p rose-pink tied by oval vernacular date stamp, routed via the Afghan - Indian frontier with Landikhana double ring and horseshoe 'Landikhana/ Due/ Two Annas' on face with octagonal Pershawar/ Unpaid arrival '5th Mar 28' on reverse.
The Afghan stamp paid the rate to the border as Afghanistan was not a member of the U.P.U. an India stamp should have carried the cover to Pershawar but for some reason taxed on the Afghanistan - Indian border.
China. (Tibet - India used in the Persian Gulf). 1917. COVER FRONT addressed to Linga, Persian Gulf bearing India SG 160, 1a carmine and SG 166, 2a purple tied by Yatung - Tibet/ via Siliguri date stamp '10th Oc 17', routed via Phari with double ring native transit, Bombay '16th Oct' and Linga '12th Nov 17' arrival.
Regretfully a FRONT OF COVER but never but a scarce destination from Tibet to Linga the Indian Postal Agency in Persia.
China. (Tibet - India used Abroad). 1909. Picture post card of 'The Himalayas from Darjeeling' addressed to France bearing India SG 150, 1a carmine tied by Yatung - Tibet/ via Siliguri date stamp '11th Feb 09' with adjacent Base Office transit '13th Feb 09'.
The Base Office was applied at Teesta Bridge, Siliguri which became a civil Post Office in January 1908.
China. (Tibet - India used Abroad). 1941. Indian postal stationery envelope 'one anna three pies' bistre addressed to Kathmandu, Nepal cancelled by Gyantse, Tibet double ring with receiver on reverse and "Dorji" traders manuscript.
China. (India used in Tibet). 1914. Native envelope addressed to Nepal bearing India SG 149, 1/2a green tied by Gyantse Tibet/ Siliguri Base date stamp '30th Oct 14' with Nepal arrival '5th Nov' adjacent. Very fine.
China. (Tibet - India used Abroad). 1906. Picture post card of 'A group of Tibetan Musicians' addressed to London bearing India SG 150, 1a carmine tied by Barharwa date stamp. Nice Tibet card.
China. (India used in Tibet). 1937. Air Mail envelope addressed to London bearing India SG 232, 1/2a green, SG 234, 1a brown and SG 236, 2a vermilion (strip of three) tied by bold Yatung - Tibet/ via Siliguri date stamp '23rd May 37'. Very attractive three colour franking.
China. (Tibet - India used Abroad). 1947. India KGV1 postal stationery envelope 'one anna half pie' brown cancelled by Kalimpong date stamp with Pharijong transit on reverse 'April 47' addressed to Lhasa in combination with Tibet SG 11B, 1t bluish red and SG 12B, 2t scarlet tied by Pharijong date stamp.
Scarce combination paying the 3tr rate with shade noted by Flack but not listed in Stanly Gibbons.
Very fine with Geoffrey Flack certificate.
China. (India used in Tibet). 1922. Large piece bearing India 'Service' SG 084, 2a deep mauve (4) tied by Yatong Tibet/ via Siliguri date stamp '21st Jan 1922' with 'R/ 177/Yatung Tibet' registration label.
China. (Tibet - India - Great Britain). 1929. Air Mail envelope addressed to 'The Royal Engineers, Fort William, Calcutta, India' bearing Great Britain SG 436, 1 1/2d brown tied by Ware double ring '25th June 29' with framed instructional 'Insufficiently Paid For/ Transmission By Air Mail' in violet on face with Fort William/ Calcutta receiver '14th July' and forwarded to Yantong and Pharijong with Yatong-Tibet via Siligori transit '17th July and redirected again "c/o Political Officers in Sikkim, The Residency, Gangkok" in red ink m/s with arrival '18th July' on reverse.
India. (British Legation in Nepal). 1948. Envelope written from the 'British Legation in Katmandu, Nepal' addressed to Uccle, Belgium bearing India SG 266, 1/2a purple, SG 268, 1a carmine and SG 270, 2a vermilion tied by British Legation (Nepal) double ring '9th Feb 48' with seal on reverse Very attractive item.
India. (India used in Nepal - Great Britain). 1920. Envelope addressed to England bearing India SG 156, 1/2a green (pair) tied by Nepal date stamp '8th Nov', underpaid with 'T' hand-stamp and bearing Great Britain postage dues SG D1, 1/2d emerald (pair) applied and tied by Huddersfield double ring '7th Dec 20' on face with hand-struck '1d/ F.S.' .
Very nice item of underpaid mail from Nepal with local Tax hand-stamp. (Cover opened out for display).
India. (India used in Nepal). 1944. Registered and Insured envelope endorsed 'V.P.P. for RS 21 (Rupees Twenty One), addressed to Bombay written from Katmandu, Nepal' bearing India SG 268, 1a carmine and SG 269, 1 1/2a dull violet (strip of five) tied by British Legation/ Reg (Nepal) date stamp '18th Aug 44' with 'V.P./ 40' pink registration label tied by hand-struck framed 'British Legation (Nepal) and receiver on reverse '23rd Aug'.
Scarce 'V.P.' pink label. A very attractive item.
India. (India used in Nepal). 1909. Native envelope addressed to 'Arminian Street, Calcutta' bearing India SG 149, 1/2a green tied by Nepal date stamp '9th Jan 09' with Calcutta arrival '12th Jan' adjacent.
India. (India used in Tibet). 1935. Envelope addressed to Ewell, Surrey bearing India 'Inauguration of New Delhi' SG 226, 1/4a olive and brown-orange and SG 227, 1/2a violet and green tied by Pharijong double ring '6th Jul 35' with hand-struck framed 'T/ CTS/ 35' applied on face and overstruck. Lovely item.
Scarce stamps used in Tibet with unusual French type postage due hand-stamp.
India. (Great Britain). 1873. Envelope written from India addressed to Woolpit, Suffolk bearing India SG 74, 8a pale rose tied by Simla/ 66 duplex '2nd Oct', routed via Bombay '6th Oct', endorsed 'via Brindisi' with Woolpit arrival 'Oct 27' and forwarded to Wilby bearing Great Britain SG 43, 1d rose tied by Bury St. Edmunds/ 97 duplex 'Oct 28' and on face Stradbroke 'Oct 29' and Wickham Market on reverse.
Nice item of re-directed mail with mixed combination of India and Great Britain one penny plate.
India. (Afghanistan - Great Britain). 1877. Envelope addressed to 'Honble Mrs James Napier/ care of the Honble James Napier/ 10th Royal Hussers, Muttra, India, N.W.P.' bearing Great Britain SG 156, 8d orange tied by Bury St. Edmunds/ 97 duplex '20th Sept 77', with Woolpit 'Sept 20' on reverse, routed via Brindisi with Sea Post Office 'Sept 28' and Muttra arrival '13th Oct.' (Part flap missing).
The 10th Royal Hussars left the North West Province for Jellalabad (Afghanistan) and the second Afghan War in 1878.
The attached photo shows Napier with the 10th Royal Hussars in Jellalabad.
Persian Gulf. (India used in Guadur - Baluchistan). 1937. Envelope (with two page letter) addressed to the Bombay Bazaar, Karachi bearing India SG 197, 1a chocolate tied by Pasni double ring '17th Sept 37' with adjacent Karachi receiver '19th Sept 37'.
Indian stamps and covers used in Pansi, Baluchistan, Persian Gulf are scarce.
Persian Gulf. (India used in Guadur - Baluchistan). 1907. Picture post card of 'The Napier Mole, Karachi' addressed to Finland bearing India SG 149, 1/2a green tied by Pasni date stamp '26th Dec 07', endorsed 'Printed Matter' with Sea Post Office transit '4 Jan 08' and Kuopio arrival '22nd Jan 08' on face.
The use of Indian stamps from this small fishing village in Baluchistan is very rare.
India. 1854. Cut to shape imperf 4 anna indigo and red cancelled by 'Bombay' type '123' obliterator of Mahableshwar. A scarce postmark on the four annas.
Ethiopia. (The Abyssinian Field Force). 1868. India Queen Victoria SG 62, 2 annas orange cancelled by "F.F." diamond obliterator of the Abyssinian Field Force. Scarce stamp used from the Campaign.
Emperor Tewodros 11 of Ethiopia wrote to Queen Victoria asking for help in the revolt against him and the constant military campaigns against his country . When the letter was not answered Tewodros took the British Consul Captain Cameron and several missionaries hostage. In response an Expedition led by Sir Robert Napier consisting of 13,000 British and Indian soldiers trekked for three months to Magdala and surrounded the city. After the siege the Abyssinian King was defeated and the city burnt, the Expedition withdrew with the rescued men and King Tewodros took his own life.
Ethiopia. (The Abyssinian Field Force). 1868. India Queen Victoria SG 51, 8 pie purple on small piece cancelled by "F.F." diamond obliterator of the Abyssinian Field Force.
Emperor Tewodros 11 of Ethiopia wrote to Queen Victoria asking for help in the revolt against him and the constant military campaigns against his county. When the letter was not answered Tewodros took the British Consul Captain Cameron and several missionaries hostage. In response an Expedition led by Sir Robert Napier consisting of 13,000 British and Indian soldiers trekked three months to Magdala and surrounded the city. After a siege the Abyssinian King was defeated and the city burnt, the Expedition withdrew with the rescued men. King Tewodros took his own life.
India. (Great Britain). 1855. Envelope addressed to 'Mr Ibbit, "On board the ship "Gengkis Khan", to be left with Messrs Glaston Wiley & Co, Calcutta, East Indies' bearing Great Britain SG 52, 4d deep carmine (strip of three) on thick highly glazed deeply blued paper tied by '97' bar obliterator with Bury St. Edmunds double arc date stamp 'Dec 3 1855' on reverse, endorsed 'via Southampton' and routed via London with part Calcutta G.P.O. receiver in red on reverse.
Gladstone Wyllie & Co were Calcutta based forwarding agents using their own agents chop recorded by Rowe from 1860 - 1867.
Scarce stamps cat 525 GBP off cover.
(Back flap missing).
India. (Great Britain). 1856. Envelope addressed to 'Mr Ibbit, "On board the ship "Gengkis Khan", to be left with Messrs Glaston Wiley & Co, Calcutta, East Indies' bearing Great Britain 'Embossed' SG 55, 1s green (right margin imperf) tied by '97' bar obliterator with Bury St. Edmunds arc date stamp 'Ja 19 1856' on face, endorsed 'via Southampton' and routed via London with Calcutta G.P.O. receiver in red on reverse '9th Mar 1856.'
Gladstone Wyllie & Co were Calcutta based Forwarding agents. Listed by Rowe they used their own Forwarding chop from 1860 - 1867.
Very fine item paying the one shilling rate to India.
Great Britain. (Australia). 1885. Envelope addressed to Adelaide, South Australia bearing SG 194, 6d dull green tied by Bury St. Edmunds squared circle 'My 18 85' with adjacent G.P.O. Adelaide on face 'June 24'.
A cover of outstanding quality with lovely deep colour on the six pence green.
Great Britain. (Jamaica). 1893. Great Britain postal stationery envelope 'two and halfpence' grey-blue cancelled by Bury St. Edmunds/ 97 duplex dated 'Feb 27 1893' addressed to 'The Second West Indies Regiment, Up Park Camp, Jamaica' with Kingston and Up Park Camp squared circle arrival '17th March' on reverse.
Up Park Camp was the headquarters of the British Army in Jamaica. The mortality rate of British soldiers in Jamaica was very high particular as a result of yellow fever. The camp expanded in the 19th Century and was the base for the West Indies Regiments.
Hong Kong. (Singapore - Great Britain). 1893. Great Britain postal stationery envelope 'halfpence' orange upgraded with 'Jubilee' SG 197, 1/2d orange and SG 232, 3d yellow/orange mixed with 'Revenue' SG F12, 1d lilac tied by Bury St. Edmonds date stamp 'Mr 9 93' addressed to 'General Post Office, Hong Kong, China', routed via Singapore on the 'S.S. "Sutlej" arriving in Hong Kong '9th April'.
Very attractive franking paying the 5 pence rate to Asia.
Revenue stamps were authorized for postal use on 1st June 1881.
China. (Boxer Rebellion). 1902. Stamp-less envelope addressed to France headed 'Corps d' Occupation du Tonkin' addressed to France cancelled by Dap Cau/ Tonkin double ring '9th Jan 02' with undated 'Tonkin Corps Exped' and circular 'Service Veterinaise Dap - Cau Tonkin/ Le Veterinaire' on face with oval 'Cercle Des Officiers/ Dap - Cau Tonkin' on reverse in violet with Chinese chop.
Very scarce cover from the Veterinary Detachment in the Boxer Campaign.
China. (Boxer Rebellion). 1901. Stamp-less envelope printed 'Chine - Armee Internationale - Corps Francais' addressed to France cancelled by 'Tresor et Postes Aux Armees 1 Chine 1' date stamp '18th Juin' with Lyon arrival on reverse '4th Aout 01'.
Very fine and rare formular envelope from the Boxer Campaign.
China. (French Occupation of China). 1891. Stamp-less envelope addressed to Hue, Annam cancelled by 'Cho-Huyen/ Annam' date stamp '10th Mai 91' with undated 'Corps Exped Annam-Tonkin' on face with circular 'Postes de Cho-Huyen/ Le Commandant' in red on reverse and countersigned by the Commander with Hue arrival. Very fine and scarce item from the French Occupation sent internally.
China. (French Occupation of China). 1897. Envelope addressed to France bearing French Indo-China SG 11, 15c blue tied by Haiphong/ Tonkin double ring '28th Mar 97' with circular 'Corps Expeditionnaire du Tonkin/ Commandant de Marine' on face in violet and taxed with triangular 'T' and bearing French postage due Yvert 33, 30c carmine tied by Paris R. Meissonier receiver '27th Avril' on face.
Superb item from the French Occupation and taxed as sent by civilian post with six page text.
China. (French Occupation of China). 1900. Stamp-less envelope endorsed 'Troupes de L' Indo-Chine' addressed to France written from 'Toung-Tcheou' (China) dated '30th December 1900' cancelled by 'Thai-Nguyen/ Tonkin' double ring with circular 'Place de Thai-Nguyen/ Tonkin/ Le Commandant D' Armees' in blue on face with undated 'Corps Expre Annam Tonkin', routed via Hanoi with Saone arrival '31st Juin 02'.'
Nice item with twelve page text in French from mainland China, written over one year period.
Its a real pleasure to add a magnificent selection of French Colonies from Africa, Asia, The Caribbean and Oceania. Very fine pre-stamp, British Post Office, Charged Mail, Advice of Receipt, Printed Matter and postage due mail. A lovely selection of censor mail, some with five or six censor cachets and labels, routed Trans-Africa, two Ocean or over the Atlantic with some unusual destinations.
A few items from the Dr. Edward Grabowski collection, this amazing sale sold in three parts by Spink. Also interesting Tahiti and New Caledonia from Tony Eastgate's life time work.
Over the next few months we hope to add many items to grace the finest collections.
A strong area of stock is our China from Imperial to WW2 with many fine censor covers and Air Transits. A good selection of the overseas Post Offices, Austrian, British, French, Japanese and Russian with offices in Manchuria. Many mixed combinations, I.P.O's .
Coming soon the John Marc Sitarek accumulation of China, French Post Office and Indo-China with magnificent French Detachment in the Boxer Campaign covers.
John Marc also had a fine selection of the Chinese Labour Force which are not often seen, he built this selection over thirty years. One of the darker aspects of World War One was the plight of 12,000 Chinese workers who were recruited by the British Army from the North of China in 1916 to serve on the battle front in France as labourers, trench diggers, munitions carriers, mine disarmers and corpse bearers under often inhumane conditions. A large number were also struck down by the devastating Spanish flue of 1918.