China. (Japanese Post Office in China). 1905. Picture post card of 'Wall and gate, Peking' addressed to France bearing Japanese Post Office SG 3a, 1s brown tied by Tongku/I.J.P.O. date stamp '23rd Aug 05'. Scarce Japanese Post Office in China.
China. (Japanese Post Office in China). 1903. Envelope addressed to Tokyo, Japan bearing Japanese Post Office SG 7a, 3s purple tied by Peking/ I.J.P.O. with arrival on face. Very fine.
China. (Formosa). 1916. Picture post card of the 'Monument to the French Officers and Soldiers who died in the French Occupation of Keeling 1884/ 85' addressed locally bearing Japan SG 136, 1 1/2s violet tied by vernacular Keelung date stamp. Very nice item.
China. (Indo-Chinese Post Office in Mengtsz). 1903. French Indo-China postal stationery envelope 15c blue cancelled by Mongtze/ Chine double ring '16th Feb 03' addressed to Hanoi, Tonkin with Lao-Kay transit '21st Feb' on reverse. Scarce item of postal stationery used in Yunnan Province.
China. (Indo-Chinese Post Office in Canton). 19o01. Canton postal stationery letter card 25c black/ rose cancelled by Canton double ring '28th Oct 01' addressed to Germany with Zabern arrival on reverse '2nd Dec 01.'
Scarce letter card from the Indo-Chinese Post Office in Canton.
China. (Indo-Chinese Post Office in Canton). 1904. Envelope addressed to Paris bearing Canton SG 21, 10c red and SG 22, 15c grey tied by Canton double ring '8th Jan 04' with Paris arrival '9/2'. Very fine.
China. (Indo-Chinese Post Office in Canton). 1904. Mandarin envelope addressed to Hong Kong bearing Canton SG 4, 5c yellow-green tied by Canton double ring '1st Feb 04'. Attractive and scarce item paying the printed matter rate to Hong Kong,
China. (Indo-Chinese Post Office in Hoihow). 1904. Envelope addressed to Paris bearing Hoihow SG 23, 25c blue tied by Hoihow/ Ile de Hainam double ring '27th Feb 04', routed via Victoria/ Hong Kong '29/2' on reverse. Superb item of commercial mail from Hainam Island.
China. (German Post Office in China). 1912. Picture post card of 'Scene of Canton River with flower boats at anchor, Canton' addressed to Austria bearing German China SG 48, 4c on 10pf red tied by Canton/ Deutsch Post date stamp, endorsed 'via Siberia'.
Attractive card, published by 'M. Sternberg, No 51, Queens Road, Central, Hong Kong.'
China. (German Post Office in China). 1903. Picture post card of 'Chinese Soldiers' addressed to Paris bearing German China SG 23, 5pf green (pair) tied by Peking/ Deutsch Post date stamp '14th Mai'. Very fine.
Nice card published by "Fr. Scholz, Tsingtau, China.'
China. (French Naval Detachment in China). 1888. Stamp-less envelope addressed to France endorsed 'Division Navale du Tonkin' cancelled by Haphong/ Tonkin date stamp with octagonal 'Corr. D' Armees/ Hai-Phong' transit '27th Dec 88' and circular 'Division Navale du Tonkin/ Mutine' on face with Finistere arrival on reverse. Lovely item from the French Marine Detachment during the French Occupation of China.
The Gunboat "Mutine" had been sent to French China as a part of the Flotilla in the Tonkin Campaign.
China. (Boxer Rebellion). 1900. Stamp-less Picture post card of 'The Pyramids and Buffalo, Suez Canal' written from Suez dated '30th Aout 1900' addressed to France cancelled 'Corps Exp. Du Tonkin/ Port Said' double ring '3rd Sept 00' with circular 'Reg Des Equipages Mres du Corps Expd. De Chine/ Le Chef d' Escadron Commandant' with French arrival. Very nice item written from the French Detachment on route to the Boxer Campaign.
The Boxer Uprising was a violet and fanatical statement of anti-foreign and Christian feelings against the Colonial expansion in China and the East. This resulted in an international force of 55,000 troops from the eight nation alliance to repress it. French Troops were drawn from France and Indo-China but also from other French Colonies including a Balloon section. By 1902n there were seven military Post Offices in China.
China. (Boxer Rebellion). 1901. Stamp-less Chinese Rice Paper envelope endorsed 'Corps Expeditionnaire de Chine' addressed to France cancelled by 'Tresor et Postes Aux Armees 5 Chine 5' double ring '7th Jan 01' with circular Corps Expeditionnaire de Chine/ Le General de Division Commandant' in violet on face and reverse with Paris arrival '25th Feb.' A very attractive wood/ rice paper illustrated envelope from the Military Post Office in Tien-Tsin for use by the French Troops in the Boxer Campaign.
The Boxer Uprising was a violent and fanatical statement of anti-foreign and Christian feelings against the Colonial expansion in China and the East. This resulted in an international force of 55,000 troops from the eight nation alliance to repress it. French Troops were drawn from France and Indo-China but also from other French Colonies including a Balloon section. By 1902 there were seven military Post Offices in China.
New Zealand. (Prisoner of War - Red Cross Mail). 1943. Printed Air Mail envelope headed 'Prisoners of War Enquiry Office/ Joint Council of The Order of St. John/ And The New Zealand Red Cross Society' addressed to 'The International Red Cross Committee, Geneve, Switzerland' bearing New Zealand SG F187, 3/6 on 3s6d grey-green tied by Wellington date stamp '3rd Nov 43' with 'Opened by Examiner/ D.D.A/ 39' censor label with circular A.x.' German censor in carmine on face applied in Paris.
Very fine single franking sent 'Air Mail over 'two oceans'.
Japan. (American Red Cross). 1945. Post-card headed 'American Red Cross/ Receipt For Prisoner of War Package' printed 'International Red Cross Committee Delegate/ Tokyo, Japan' dated '27/8/43', written by 'A.G. Wicking, No 975028, British, Fukuoka Camp' stating 'I have received today one food package from The American National Red Cross through the International Red Cross Committee.'
Very fine and scarce item from Fukuoka Camp.
Malaya. ( Prisoner of War Mail - British East Africa). 1943. Stamp-less envelope written from the 'Kathpat Estate, Kiambo, Kenya' headed 'Prisoner of War Post/ Service de Prisonniers de Guerre' addressed to 'Major G.T. Denaro, The York & Lancaster Regt./ The Malay Regt. Malaya Camp, Singapore, Malaya/ c/o Japanese Red Cross, Tokyo, Japan' cancelled by Kiambu/ Kenya date stamp '14th Aug 43' with 'Opened by Censor' label tied by circular 'Deputy Chief Field Censor' and hand-stamped 'Prisoner of War Letter' in violet on face, routed via Japan with 'Societe De La Croix Rouge du Japan/ Tokio/ Service de Secours Pour Les Prisonniers de Guerre' in violet on face and endorsed 'CHA' in pencil on face indicating Major Denaro was in Changi Camp.
Major George Denaro received the Distinguished Service Order in 1945.
Malaya. (Australia - Netherlands Indies - Red Cross - Prisoner of War Mail). 1943. Australian Red Cross envelope (solid bar, fifth variety) headed 'Prisoners of War Post/ Service Des Prisonniers de Guerre' written from Frankston, Victoria cancelled by Melbourne Vic roller dated '11th Oct 1943' addressed to 'No 216411 Pte J.H. Hoving, 1st Division Howitzers, Royal Netherlands Indies Army, Dutch Prisoner of War, Java' c/o Japanese Red Cross Society/ Tokyo, Japan' with '3 Opened by Censor' label on reverse tied by triangular framed '3/ Passed by Censor/ 382' in violet on face and reverse, routed via Japan with circular 'Societe De/ La Croix Rouge du Japan Tokio/ Service de Secours Pour Les Prisonniers de Guerre' in carmine, with boxed 'Ken'etsuzumi' (censored) hand-stamp in violet with oval seal of "Miura" in orange, endorsed 'Palembang' in blue crayon and hand-stamped with framed 'Mare e Ikan' (Transferred to Malaya) and endorsed 'M' for Malaya.
Attractive item full of character.
Thailand. (French Occupation of Siam). 1903. Stamp-less envelope endorsed 'Troupes d' Occupation de Siam' addressed to France canceled by 'Saigon Cochin/ Corps Exp.' date stamp '2nd March 03' with bold circular 'Post De Pak-Nam/ Siam Le Commandant D' Armes' in blue and counter-signed by the Commanding Officer with Gironde receiver on reverse '2nd Avril' and fine wax seal. Very fine and rare item from the French Occupation of Pak-Nam.
The two great colonial powers in South East Asia Britain and France fought for control of the trade.
In 1893 France sent military forces east of the Mekong seizing Stung-Teng, Khong and Bassac. On the evening of the 13th July 1893 two French gunboats arrived at the mouth of the Chao Phraya at Pak Nam and against the wishes of the Siamese Government proceeded upstream. The Thai's opened fire from the fort at Pak Nam. The French gunboats proceeded under fire and anchored in front of the French Legation in Bangkok.
The Siamese having fired first had to give into the French demands ceding territory and the area of Siemrat and Battambong Provinces in Cambodia. Britain was unwilling to help the Thai's and on 21st August 1893 French Forces occupied Chantaburi.
By 1904 a new treaty was signed and France withdrew from Chantaburi and Pak Nam.
Very few items of Pak Nam mail is know and this is one of the finest. (The Pak Nam on the French Occupation of Siam/ Chantaboon refers to the Laem Singh delta and not the entrance to the Chao Phraya.
Malaya. (Japanese Occupation). 1942. Official Mail envelope from the 'Collector of Land Revenue/ Kota Tinggi' headed 'On Johore Government Service' addressed to Singapore bearing Japan SG 321, 8c violet tied by Kota Tinggi double ring '20th Dec 42.' Very fine.
Malaya. (Repatriated Prisoner of War). 1945. Un-stamped Red Cross envelope headed 'Issued Free by Australian Red Cross Society to Hospital Patients' endorsed 'Ex P.O.W.' written by a repatriated ex Dutch Prisoner of War sailing on the 'S.S. "Cilicia" from Singapore addressed to Bandoeng, Java' with large '?' in blue crayon, cancelled by 'Field Post Office/ 174' applied in Suez in transit to Liverpool. Nice item.
Ex P.O.W.'s were repatriated on a variety of ships from Singapore in 1945. Herr Lebbink had been a Prisoner of War in Java and sailed on the 'S.S. "Cilicia" of the 'Anchor Line' from Singapore 2nd October arriving Liverpool October 29th 1945.
See David Tett "The Changi Connection" volume one, page 337.
Malaya. (Netherlands Post Office in Singapore). 1946. Stamp-less envelope endorsed 'On Active Service' written from 'Prins Bernhard Kamp A, Changi, Singapore' addressed to 'Central Information Bureau, Batavia' with circular 'Netherlands Post Office/ Singapore' date stamp in violet '20th Jan 1946'. Very nice item.
Lovely item from Prins Bernhard Camp, home to Recovered Allied Prisoners of War during repatriation.
Malaya. (Singapore). 1945. Stamp-less envelope written from 'Information Bureau, c/o Ned. Ind. Roode Kruis, Java' addressed to Holland cancelled by Singapore transit '19th Sept 1945' on face. Very fine.
Malaya. (Straits Settlements). 1910. Picture post card of 'Penang Harbour' addressed to Java, Netherlands Indies bearing Straits Settlements SG 155, 4c purple tied by 'E. & O. Hotel/ Penang' in violet with m/s date '22-7-10' in center, routed via Penang with Semarang arrival. Scarce Penang Hotel cancellation recorded (16.4.10) - (6.7.10).
Malaya. (British Military Administration). 1946. Air Mail registered B.M.A. postal stationery card 4c violet upgraded with SG 13, 25c scarlet and purple, SG 14, 50c green and black, SG 15, $1 red and black, SG 16 $2, red and green and SG 18, $5 orange and purple tied by Singapore/ Registered double ring '1st Feb 1946' with matching registration label, written by 'W.H. Amweg, Released P.O.W. R.N.F. Beatrix Camp, Changi, Singapore' addressed to 'Postmaster, R.A.P.W.I. Post Office, Batavia, Java' with oval 'Central Post Bureau/ Batavia/ R.A.P.W.I.' in violet on face.
Superb item from an ex Dutch Prisoner of War (Royal Netherlands Force), Beatrix Camp into the Post Office for Recovery of Allied Prisoner of War and Internees, Java.
Please ask for a much better scan.
Malaya. (Netherlands Post Office in Singapore). 1946. Stamp-less wrapper written from 'C.H. Hooper, Sergt. Major, Brigade Staff, 1st Ned. Mariners, Singapore' addressed to 'Mr W.H.G. Hooper, Nee Soon Barracks, Irene Camp II, Block Ji, Singapore' endorsed 'On Active Service' with circular 'Netherlands Post Office/ Singapore' date stamp in violet '23rd Feb 1946' and endorsed '90gr' in blue crayon.
The first wrapper I have seen from the Netherlands Post Office in Singapore.
Malaya. (Singapore - Prisoner of War Mail). 1946. Stamp-less envelope written from Soerabaja addressed to 'Nee Soon Barracks, "Irene Camp", Blok J/ I, Singapore' cancelled by Soerabaja date stamp '20th Feb 46'. Nice item of incoming mail to an ex P.O.W. Dutchman now repatriated in Nee Soon Barack, Irene Camp.
Malaya. (Japanese Occupation). 1944. Envelope written from Johore Bahru addressed to Malacca bearing Japanese Occupation SG J309, 8c rose-red tied by vernacular Johore Bahru double ring '13th Mar 2604' (1944) with framed Ipoh Japanese Occupation censor No 6 on reverse. Very fine.
Malaya. (Kelantan). 1937. Envelope addressed to Belgium bearing Kelantan SG 40, 1c yellow and olive (2), SG 41, 2c green and SG 45, 8c olive tied by Tumpat/ Kelantan date stamp '4th Aug', routed via Kota Bharu '5th Aug 37' on reverse. Very fine, commercial mail from Trumpat is difficult to find.
Lovely stamps on cover a very attractive franking.
China. (French Occupation of China). 1888. Stamp-less mourning envelope endorsed 'Division de l' Annam et du Tonkin' addressed to Algeria, North Africa cancelled by 'Cam-Lo/ Annam' double ring '10th Mars', routed via Quang-Tri and Hue with Annam/ Hue on reverse '11th Mars' with undated 'Hue Cochinch/ Corps Exp' and circular undated 'Corps Expre/ Annam Tonkin' on face, countersigned by the Commander, routed via Saigon/ Cochinchine '4th Avril 88' with Oran receiver. Very fine and scarce early item from the French Occupation in Hue, Annam into North Africa.
China. (French China). 1903. Mourning envelope addressed to France bearing 'French Militaire' Yvert F.M. 1, 15c orange tied by Shang-Hai/ Chine double ring '2nd Oct 03' with circular 'Marine Francaise/ Service a la Mer' and Rouen arrival. Scarce use of the French Military stamp in China.
China. (French Naval Detachment in China). 1888. Stamp-less envelope addressed to France endorsed 'Corps d' Occupation du Tonkin' cancelled by 'Ha-Noi/ Tonkin' date stamp with adjacent 'Tonkin/ Corps Expedit.' double ring '10 Mars 88' and circular 'Division Navale du Tonkin/ Levrard' in orange-red on face, sent by French paquebot with 'Cor. D' Arm Ligne N Paq Fr. No 5' on reverse '25th Mars' and Bordeaux arrival on reverse '22/4'. Lovely item from the Marine Detachment during the French Occupation of China cancellation in red being very scarce.
The Gunboat "Levrard" had been sent to French China as a part of the Flotilla in the Tonkin Campaign.
China. (France - French Indo-China). 1869. Envelope addressed to 'Monsieur Corobaud onbord the gunboat "Caroline" a Saigon, Cochinchine' bearing French 'Napoleon' Yvert 29b, 20c blue tied by gross chiffres '2848' with adjacent Pierrefeu/ Var date stamp '15th Jan 69', with framed 'PD' on face in red. Scarce item of destination mail into Saigon 1869.
China. (French China - Postage Dues). 1910. French 'Messageries Maritimes' envelope addressed to Shanghai bearing 'French 'Sower' Yvert 137, 5c green tied by octagonal French paquebot 'Ligne N Paq. Fr. No 2' date stamp '21st Mar 1910' with arrival in French Post Office '31st Mars 10', endorsed 'recue le 7th Mai 1910 a 8h 5 de lou' on reverse in red ink and bearing French China postage due SG D27, 30c carmine tied by Shang-Hai/ Chine double ring '7th Mai 10' on reverse. Superb item of French China Postage dues underpaid on French paquebot cover.
China. (French Gunboat on the Yang-Tse). 1928. Stamp-less envelope addressed to France headed 'Flottille Fluviale du Yang-Tse/ Canonniere "La Grandiere" cancelled by circular 'Marine Francaise/ Service a la Mer' with framed 'Franchise Militaire' and Vendee arrival '27th Jan 29' on reverse. Very fine.
Scarce item sent from the French Gun-Boat "La Grandiere" on the Yang-Tse.
China. (French Indo-China Military Mail). 1940. Photographic post card of 'Beach Doson' addressed to Vat Chay endorsed 'S.M.' with Doson/ Tonkin date stamp '20th June' and circular '2nd Groupe Cote. D.C.A. Du Tonkin/ 5th Bie/ Le Vaguemestre' on face. Lovely item
Lovely item from the 'Defense Contre Aeronees' Detachment in French Indo-China. (Anti-Aircraft Defense).
China. (French Naval Detachment in Saigon). 1930. Picture post card of 'View sur l' Arroyo Chinois, Saigon' addressed to France, endorsed 'F.M., cancelled by octagonal 'Cuirasse - Waldeck - Rousseau' date stamp struck twice '29th Mar 30' with circular 'Division Navales Extreme Orient/ Franchise Militaire' in violet on face with Loire arrival '28/4'. Very attractive item from the Gunboat "Waldeck - Rousseau" at Saigon.
See Desrousseaux volume 4 page 259.
China. (French Gunboat on the Yang-Tse). 1936. Stamp-less envelope (on the Gun-Boat "Francis Garnier" envelope) addressed to France endorsed 'F.M.' on face and 'Canonniere "Francis Garnier"/ Flottille du Yang-Tse-Kiang' cancelled by hand-stamp 'Canonniere Francis Garmier' in violet with circular 'Marine Francaise/ Service a la Mer' and framed 'Francaise Militaire' , routed 'via Siberia' , with Gironde on reverse. Very fine.
China. (French Naval Detachment in China). 1936. Stamp-less envelope written from Shanghai addressed to France endorsed 'F.M.' cancelled by framed 'Franchais Militaire/ Des Forces Navales D' Extreme Orient' with circular 'Marine Francaise/ Service a la Mer' in violet and boxed 'Via Transsiberian' on face with Finistere arrival '4th Dec 36' on reverse. Lovely item from the French Naval Base in China.
Hong Kong. (Royal Artillery). 1941. 'On His Majesty's Service' envelope endorsed 'By British Packet Only' addressed to 'Regimental Paymaster (C.D. & A.A. Branch) Leicester' bearing Hong Kong SG 151, 30c olive tied by Victoria/ Hong Kong double ring '5th July 41' with framed 'Headquarters/ 5th A.A./ Regiment, R.A.' on face. Very nice item.
The Royal Artillery 5th Anti Aircraft Regiment was stationed at Lyemun Barracks, Hong Kong until 1941.
Hong Kong. (Chinese Imperial Post). 1897. Hong Kong postal stationery card 'one cent' green cancelled by Hong Kong date stamp 'Dec 24 97', addressed to 'The Imperial Chinese Post Office, Peking' with Shanghai dollar chop transit on face 'Dec 30' and Peking dollar chop receiver in blue on reverse '7th Jan 98'. Lovely item paying the one cent post-card rate from Hong Kong to Imperial China.
Hong Kong. (Treaty Ports). 1905. Picture post card of 'Chinese Beauty' addressed to France bearing Hong Kong SG 35, 5c blue tied by Hankow/ A date stamp 'June 8 05', routed via Victoria '16 June' with French arrival at Le Creusot. Nice item.
Hankow. Webb Type Ji. the latest date known on QV adhesive 29th August 04 according to Webb.
Hong Kong. (Netherlands East Indies). 1941. Envelope addressed to Java bearing SG 165, 5c black and green and SG 167, 25c chocolate and blue tied by Victoria/ Hong Kong double ring '12th Mar 41' with 'Passed by Censor/ Hong Kong' label tied by boxed '12' in green and Netherlands Indies 'Door Censuur Geopend' label tied by circular 'Dev/ 16' in carmine on face. Very fine.
Hong Kong. (Postal Stationery). 1917. Hong Kong KGV postal stationery card 'two cents green upgraded with SG 119, 3c grey and SG 124, 10c ultramarine tied by Hong Kong double ring '11th Mr 37', addressed to Germany and endorsed 'via Siberia'. Very scarce item of postal stationery uprated to Germany. Attractive item.
China. (Lungchow). 1904. Registered envelope addressed to Hanoi bearing Chinese Imperial Post SG 110, 2c red, SG 111, 4c chestnut and SG 113, 10c green tied by Lungchow date stamp 'Feb 20' with framed 'R/ Lungchow (314)', routed via Lang-Son '1st Mars' with Hanoi arrival '2nd Mars'. Exhibition item opened out for display.
Lovely item of mail from Imperial China paying the Registration and letter rate fee of sixteen cents cross border to French Indo-China.
China. (Post War Inflation). 1948. Air mail envelope addressed to Brazil bearing SG 1009, $20,000 on 10c green (3), SG 1011, $30,000 on 30c orange, SG 1038, $300,000 apple green (3) and SG 1042, $3,000,000 bistre tied by Shanghai date stamp. Superb franking to an unusual destination for China.
China. (Imperial Post Office - French Post Office). 1900. Envelope addressed to Berlin bearing Chinese Imperial Post SG 113, 10c green tied by Tientsin date stamp '21sr April', routed via the French and Imperial Post Office Shanghai with French Post Office in China SG 9, 25c black/ rose tied by Shang-Hai Chine double ring '27/4' and Berlin arrival on reverse. Nice combination.
China. (Austrian Post Office). 1901. Picture post card of 'The Bund at High Water, Hankow' addressed to Austria endorsed 'Feld-Post' on face in red crayon with circular 'K und K Kriegs Marine/ S.S. Kaiserin Elisabeth' date stamp '3rd June 01' with Pola arrival '14/7' and forwarded to Baden, Wien with arrival '16th Juin' on face. Lovely item from the Austrian Forces in the Boxer Campaign.
China. (Shanghai Local Post - Postcards). 1905. Picture post card of 'A gate on the Yang-tse river, Hankow' addressed to Shanghai bearing Chinese Local Post SG 110, 2c red tied by Hankow date stamp '16th Feb' with Shanghai/ Local Post arrival adjacent 'Feb 19' on face. Superb item.
India. (Prisoner of War Mail). 1918. Stamp-less envelope written from Belgaum, Prisoner of War Camp addressed to 'Bureau International de la Croix Rouge, Berne, Switzerland' cancelled 'Service of Prisoners of War/ Colonel/ Supt. Civil Camp, Belgaum', routed via Bombay with circular 'Passed Censor/ Bombay/ 12' and 'Opened by Censor' label in red on reverse. Very fine.
Poland. (Prisoner of War Post). 1919. Envelope addressed to 'Comite International de la Croix Rouge, Agence International des Prisonniers de Guerre, Geneve' bearing Poland Yvert 151, 25f turquoise (pair) tied by Stanislawow date stamp with framed 'Cenzura Wojskowa/ w Stanislawow' in blue and circular '4' cachet in violet with framed 'Vendu Par/ L' Agence Internationale/ Der Prisonniers de Guerre' on face. Very fine item.
Its a real pleasure to add a magnificent selection of French Colonies from Africa, Asia, The Caribbean and Oceania. Very fine pre-stamp, British Post Office, Charged Mail, Advice of Receipt, Printed Matter and postage due mail. A lovely selection of censor mail, some with five or six censor cachets and labels, routed Trans-Africa, two Ocean or over the Atlantic with some unusual destinations.
A few items from the Dr. Edward Grabowski collection, this amazing sale sold in three parts by Spink. Also interesting Tahiti and New Caledonia from Tony Eastgate's life time work.
Over the next few months we hope to add many items to grace the finest collections.
A strong area of stock is our China from Imperial to WW2 with many fine censor covers and Air Transits. A good selection of the overseas Post Offices, Austrian, British, French, Japanese and Russian with offices in Manchuria. Many mixed combinations, I.P.O's .
Coming soon the John Marc Sitarek accumulation of China, French Post Office and Indo-China with magnificent French Detachment in the Boxer Campaign covers.
John Marc also had a fine selection of the Chinese Labour Force which are not often seen, he built this selection over thirty years. One of the darker aspects of World War One was the plight of 12,000 Chinese workers who were recruited by the British Army from the North of China in 1916 to serve on the battle front in France as labourers, trench diggers, munitions carriers, mine disarmers and corpse bearers under often inhumane conditions. A large number were also struck down by the devastating Spanish flue of 1918.